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Copper mining and smelting technology in the northern Lowveld, South Africa, ca. 1000 CE to ca. 1880 CE November 2016 Journal of Archaeological Science 75:10-26


IRON AGECOPPER-SMELTING TECHNIQUES IN SOUTHERN AFRICA copper-smelting sites (Harmony in the Eastern Transvaal, Messina in the Northern Transvaal, and Kol-wezi inthe Congo) are included in Table I.ThetwoTransvaal samples show copper values falling into the majority range of the Uitkomst slags, whereas the Congo sample shows a very much higher copper


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Copper - Glencore

We mine and process copper ore in the key mining regions of Africa, Australia and South America. We source and recycle copper scrap in North America and Asia. And we smelt and refine copper at smelters and refineries around the world. Our copper marketing business supplies a range of customers in the automotive, electronics and construction ...


Ancient history of copper smelting • Smelting history goes back at least 6000 years to the copper smelters of the Timnavalley near Eilatin Israel • Copper is the world's oldest metal and was used in Africa more than 5000 years ago for water plumbing in the Pyramid of Cheopsin Egypt. The Egyptians obtained their copper from Israel and from ...


Advances in SA's ferroalloy smelting South Africa has the world's richest reserves of chrome and manganese ores, used to make ferrochrome (FeCr) for the stainless ... including process 12 Forged copper panels used for the roof of a ... romanganese using the electric smelting process, and then used in the production of


ferroalloys, ferrochrome, ferrocobalt, ilmenite smelting, ironmaking, operational readiness, operational support Abstract – The paper describes the development of furnace designs by Hatch in conjunction with the smelting plants in Africa to meet the intense process requirements in certain applications; continued improvement in operating


IRON AGECOPPER-SMELTING TECHNIQUES IN SOUTHERN AFRICA copper-smelting sites (Harmony in the Eastern Transvaal, Messina in the Northern Transvaal, and Kol-wezi inthe Congo) are included in Table I.ThetwoTransvaal samples show copper values falling into the majority range of the Uitkomst slags, whereas the Congo sample shows a very much higher copper


copper, zinc, lead, and platinum mining operations smelt their own concentrates and are required to recover the sulphur dioxide from their smelting operations, the pro-duction ofsulphuric acid in South Africa would beanextra 1000000 to 1500000tonnes per annum by 1985.Thisislikely tobemore than the local mining and fertilizer in-


smelting to produce a PGM-bearing nickel matte which is shipped to specialist refineries using hydrometallurgical processes to recover the nickel, copper, PGMs and cobalt. There are many such refinery processes including: • ammonia leach, e.g. the Sherritt-Gordon process …


The Outotec JAE Ni Smelting Process3 developed with Jinchuan Nickel and ENFI is used at the Jinchuan Nickel Smelter to process over 1.1 Mt/a of nickel sulphide feeds. The process is also used at Jilin Nickel in China to process 245 kt/a of nickel sulphide feeds.


South Africa's PGM output is derived almost exclusively from the Bushveld Complex, with only about 0.1% coming from the gold deposits of the Witwatersrand and Free State, and the Phalaborwa copper ...


South Africa Abstract – Waterval Smelter complex is situated in Rustenburg, in South Africa's North West Province. The smelter objective is to process wet concentrate to produce crushed, slow-cooled, sulphur-deficient nickel-copper matte rich in platinum group metals (PGMs), gold, and base metals for despatch to the Magnetic


Figure 6-2.—Early Smelting Technology Charcoal ore flux m The Egyptian copper smelting furnace was filled with a mixture of copper ore, charcoal and iron ore to act as a flux. It was blown for several hours by foot or hand bellows. By the end of the smelt the copper …


Ancient history of copper smelting • Smelting history goes back at least 6000 years to the copper smelters of the Timnavalley near Eilatin Israel • Copper is the world's oldest metal and was used in Africa more than 5000 years ago for water plumbing in the Pyramid of Cheopsin Egypt. The Egyptians obtained their copper from Israel and from ...


The most common ore in Africa is malachite and it was used mainly with hardwood charcoal the smelting process (Bisson et al. 2000). Copper throughout Africa Central and South Africa. In West Africa copper was used as medium of exchange, symbols of status and kingship, jewelry, and ritual purposes; this was a part of Bantu tradition prior to ...


Africa has an important role to play in this process. The present paper provides a brief overview of copper smelting in Southern Africa. Ancient History of Copper Smelting Smelting history goes back at least 6000 years to the copper smelters of the Timna valley near Eilat in Israel.